What is the difference between Cognac and Armagnac?

One question that I am asked on a regular basis is “what is the difference between Cognac and Armagnac?” Most people are familiar with Cognac and more and more people are becoming aware of Armagnac. Cognac and Armagnac stand out as two of the most distinguished choices. While both are luxurious brandies originating from France they each possess unique qualities that set them apart. 

Similarities of Cognac and Armagnac

Whether you lean towards Cognac’s refined elegance or are captivated by Armagnac’s rustic allure, both brandies offer a journey into the heart of French craftsmanship. 

Both Cognac and Armagnac are made from the distillation of white wine from delimited geographical regions in south west France. The main grape varieties used are Ugni Blanc, Folle Blanche and Colombard (with some Baco in Armagnac). Both regions have calcareous (chalky) soils which help produce a base wine with high acidity. Both spirits are aged in oak casks and, more often than not, are blended prior to sale.

Location of Cognac and Armagnac 

Cognac is from a strictly controlled geographical region in the Charente and Charente-Maritime departments of south western France. The region’s unique maritime climate influences the aging process, resulting in a delicate and balanced flavour profile.

Armagnac is from a strictly controlled region in the Gascony region in Gers, Lands and Lot-et-Garonne departments of south western France. Often considered the elder cousin of Cognac with somewhat more rustic style.

Bottles of Cognac, Ragnaud Sabourin, Maxime Trijol, Frapin

Terroir

The terroir (the sense of place of a wine or spirit) plays a huge part in the character of both spirits. Both the Cognac and Armagnac producing regions have their own unique soils, climates etc.

Cognac is divided into six sub-regions – Grande Champagne, Petite Champagne, Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons Bois and Bois Ordinaires. Grand and Petite Champagne have the chalkiest soils and produce the most elegant brandies. Bon Bois and Borderies are characterised by clay soils and produce a heavier, fuller wine and spirit, Fine Bois soils are a mixture of clay and chalk and the Cognacs from here are more medium-bodied. Some producers will label their Cognacs as coming from a particular sub region e.g. Grande Champagne, but others may blend spirit from across the different regions to produce a consistent house style.

Armagnac is divided into three crus – Bas Armagnac, Tenareze and Haut-Armagnac – all have predominantly chalky soils but with large local stones, known locally as boulbenes, which help to retain heat in the vineyard thus aiding the ripening process and they also improve drainage.

Distillation

One of the principal differences between Armagnac and Cognac is in the method of production. Cognac is distilled in a basic Charentais still or pot still, a discontinuous method of distillation whereby batches of wine are distilled. Armagnac is distilled using a continuous still or single column still (although pot stills may be used, in practise they are not). The continuous method of distillation used in Armagnac is a more efficient process and ensures a richer, fruitier spirit than Cognac.

Maturation

Both Cognac and Armagnac vary in their ageing regimes. Cognac is aged in oak barrels with a capacity of between 350 and 400 litres which are made from Limousin, Troncais or Alliers oak. Armagnac is aged in similar oak casks with some Limousin and Alsace oak but also a local black oak from the Monlezun forest. Monlezun oak is  a very tannic oak which imparts a rich colour and gives a good structural base for ageing new spirit which marries well with the richer and fruitier Armagnac.

Typical Flavour Profiles

Both Cognac and Armagnac go through various stages as the spirit ages and interacts with the oak barrels. At the beginning of ageing the spirits tend to exhibit characteristics of fresh fruit such as apricot, plum, pear and quince. With age these fresh fruit characteristics evolve into preserved fruits such as jam or fruit confit before evolving into dried fruit, think pruned, dried figs and pot pourri. As the fruit is evolving so any toffee notes develop from hard to soft toffee, to creamy, buttery and even buttersctotch type notes. The process of oxidation in the cask with age also sees nutty almond, walnut and rancio notes develop.

In general Cognac tends to be show lighter fruit (pear, orange) and floral notes whilst Armagnacs shows more orange, plum, quince and apricot fruit notes with vanilla, toffee notes and developing earthy and smokey characteristics. Armagnac is often described as a more rustic spirit due to its fuller, more viscous nature. Cognac tends to be lighter and more aromatic.

Bottles of XO Cognac and Armagnac, Le Reviseur and Janneau

Classification of Cognac and Armagnac

Although you will find single vintage Cognac and Armagnac, the principal methods of classification of Armagnac and Cognac are based on the number of years the spirit is aged in barrel.

In Cognac three star or VS must be aged for a minimum of 2 years in barrel, VSOP (Very Superior Old Pale) for 4 years and XO (Extra Old) for a minimum of 10 years (it was increased from 6 years in 2018). A relatively new category called XXO or Extra Extra Old is for spirits aged for a minimum of 14 years old. There is also Hors d’Age, meaning “Beyond Age”, a designation which Bureau National Interprofessionnel du Cognac (BNIC)  states is equal to XO, but in practice the term is used by producers to market a high-quality product beyond the official age scale. In addition to this, there are also age statement and single vintage Cognacs.

Cognac Maxime Trijol VSOP Grande Champagne, 1er Cru de Cognac 40% (2)

A Grande Champagne VSOP Cognac, Cognac Maxime Trijol VSOP Grande Champagne, 1er Cru de Cognac 40%

Armagnac VS or Three Star is a mix of several Armagnacs that have seen at least one year of ageing in wood, VSOP for at least 4 years, XO and Hors d’Age for a minimum of 10 years. There are also single vintage and age statement Armagnacs. Single vintage Armagnacs are more common than vintage Cognacs.

Baron de Sigognac 10 Year Old Bas Armagnac 70cl

A bottle of 10 Year Old Armagnac, Baron de Sigognac 10 Year Old Bas Armagnac 70cl

These are minimum ages and it is important to note that many houses, though not all, choose to age their products  for much longer. Thus, it is possible for the VSOP of one house to be older and superior to an XO from another.

The legislation, ageing and classification of Armagnac is overseen by the BNIA, the Bureau National Interprofessionnel de l’Armagnac and Cognac by the BNIC, Bureau National Interprofessionnel du Cognac.

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